Monday, August 5, 2019

Kashmir: The Gamechanger

by Dr. Aslam Abdullah
It was expected, even though the ruling Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) in its election manifesto in April 2019 had assured the people of Kashmir that it would not change the Article 370 of the constitution that gives them the autonomy. On August 5, ten days before India's 73rd celebration of independence and 69 years and 40 days later India agreed to a United Nations resolution on the right of self-determination for the people of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, one of the 29 states in India was stripped of its statehood and given the status of the eight union territories to be governed by the President with a state elected body having limited powers.
What was done by the BJP as part of its ultimate goal was to ensure that the constitution does not give special privileges to any state.  India initially had given special status in three states, Assam, Nagaland, and Jammu & Kashmir, but eight more were added later and they are Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura, and Uttarakhand. 
Why was Kashmir picked as the first state to be stripped of its special state? 
Kashmir is the major source of tension between India and Pakistan. India has accused Pakistan of fomenting trouble in the Indian side of Kashmir after occupying part of Kashmir known as Azad Kashmir. India believes that the special status granted to Jammu and Kashmir does not empower the union government to take appropriate measures to control the Pakistani influence in the Kashmir valley. India also believes that due to its special status, non-Kashmiris cannot buy land or invest in the state.
But the issue is not related to administrative technicalities or cross border influence. Kashmir occupies a special status in Hinduism. It is believed by the Hindu religious scholars that when Buddhism gained its ground in the Kashmir region, casteism became less prevalent with the exception of the uppermost caste, the Brahmins who resisted the changes. Brahmins of Kashmir are considered the most nobles within the Brahmins of India and they had a special status because of higher positions women held in their community. Islam gained its followers in the seventh century, but it was in the 14th century when Kashmir became a predominantly Muslim region. It is said that during the reign of the sixth ruler of Shah dynasty known as Shah Miri, known as Sikandar Butshikan, the Hindus were asked to accept Islam or leave the state. Many left the region. Later on, his heir Zainul Abdin is said to have restored Brahmins, their property and those who were forcibly converted to Islam were allowed to return.
The Hindu nationalist organizations, including RSS and BJP, believe that Hindus, especially, belonging to the upper castes were forcibly converted to Islam and it is their duty to facilitate their return to their original religion and ensure that the state is restored to its original Hindu inhabitants. It is this religious fervor that is behind the BJP's latest move in changing the constitution on the issue.
Many Kashmiris believe that the BJP initiative would not stop here. Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. It includes a larger area that includes the Indian administered territory of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistani-administer territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan and Chinese administered territories of Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract.  j & K has a population of over 12 million with 70 percent Muslims. 
Many believe that the next step would be to change the demography of the state and the final step would be the reunification of Kashmir. This would infuriate Pakistan and even China with the possibility of increased hostilities leading even to war.
Obviously, in this latest BJP move, the Kashmiri Muslim leadership was kept in the dark. The entire Muslim leadership was detained and Muslim regions were put under curfew. State and universities were closed and the news was not allowed to travel out of the area. This would create more bitterness among Muslims in Kashmir. The ruling party invited the Hindu and Buddhist constituents of the state to discuss the issue, but Muslims were completely kept in the dark. On the contrary, they were given the assurance that nothing dramatic was going to happen. The sense of betrayal is likely to turn more Kashmiri youth to militancy. This situation could be exploited by anyone with a goal to destabilize India.  The BJP believes that it has the mass support of the rest of India for its stand, and it has the right military might control any militancy whether domestic or foreign. Armed with legislation that gives the government a power to detain any individual under the pretext of terrorism, the BJP is confident to sail through the Kashmir controversy. Will it lead to peace in the region, it is a guessing game.

Friday, August 2, 2019

The Lynch Nation

By Dr. Aslam Abdullah
Dalits are considered impure and the filthiest in the hierarchy determined by birth in Hinduism. They have always lived on the periphery of Hindu religion and society. Muslims in India, by and large, are the descendants of Dalits or so-called untouchables who decided to accept Islam as doors leading to dignity in their birth religion were locked.
Now the two communities have become a target of Hindu terrorists who under various pretexts create conditions for an agitated mob to lynch them. The police, representing the ethos of terrorists, record only those incidents captured by someone on cameras. Otherwise, hundreds of such incidents remain unreported and often publicly unheard. The lynching of Dalit is a simple act. Some people belonging to upper caste catch a Dalit under any pretext, false or real, and beat him or her until death. But in Muslim lynching, they add a religious element too. They catch a Muslim, accuse him of stealing, then force him to say Jai Shri Ram and keep on hitting him or her with sticks, stones and knives until death. The number of people lynched during the reign of the current Prime Minister is about 100 reported cases. The unreported incidents may run into thousands.
Most of the upper caste lynchers belong to the Rashtriya Swayam Sangh, Bhartiya Janta Party, Bajrang Dal, Shiv Sena, and Hindu Vishwa Parishad. They are all rooted in an ideology of Hindu supremacy and in the idea that India is primarily from Hindus and only upper castes have a right to rule over India or decide who the rulers should be. They believe that Dalits being part of the filthiest social strata of their society must always be subservient to them. They also believe that current Muslims were Dalits who were forcibly converted to Islam and now it is their obligation to bring them back to their religion, especially when a section of them created a country by the name of Pakistan for itself.
The main reason given by the lynchers for their action is their utmost reverence for cows they consider the mother of Hinduism. They worship him and they see that slaughter of cows of Muslims a direct attack on their religion.
India has banned slaughtering cows but allows the slaughter of buffalo and oxen. But there are states such as Kerala, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura and West Bengal where cow slaughter is not prohibited. Some of these states are controlled by the Hindu nationalist party BJP.
Additionally, India is also the largest beef exporter in the world. As per the report of Export Genius, India is the largest beef exporter in the world followed by Brazil and Australia. It registered an export value of $3,680 million USD by beef exports from the world's output ($19,886 million USD) in 2016. The number is much higher in 2019. Ironically, all the beef exporting companies that operate under Arabic sounding names, are owned by upper-caste Hindus directly or through providers.
The anger of the lynching mob is not directed against the beef exporting countries. Their targets are Muslims and Dalits.
So far, the government of India has not taken any meaningful action against the lynching mobs or their leaders. On the contrary, several senior members of the ruling party have supported the lynchers by facilitating them or honoring them. Only the northern states of Rajasthan and the central state of Madhya Pradesh led by the Congress party have declared lynching a punishable offense. However, even in those states, it is the police that has the power to reject filing an FIR if a case of lynching is brought.
The silence of national political leaders and a great majority of Hindu religious leaders, clearly indicate that lynching is not just a reactionary act, it is a well-planned act to create fear and intimidation in the Muslim and Dalit communities.
The lynching of Muslims and Dalit in India is, ironically, backed by several Hindu supporters of BJP and RSS in the United States. These individuals who may be holding important positions in several India or Hindu related organizations, send millions of dollars annually to Hindu outfits in India that are engaged in promoting hatred. Many people fear that their growing influence in US politics might create conditions like India against Muslims and Dalits in the US.
Muslim organizations are generally silent on this issue all around the world and more so in the United States. None of them has so far taken a strong position or filed any petition on lynching with the State Department of the diplomatic mission of India.
The continued lynching, and the apathy of Muslim organization abroad in general coupled with the increased support for lynchers in the Indian community in the USA point to a dangerous future, a future where a whole community of over 200 million may be subject to genocidal actions by Hindu terrorists.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Why a self-respecting person will not say Jai Shri Ram?

By Dr. Aslam Abdullah
Among the ruling elites of India comprising mainly people of the so-called upper castes is the growing notion that India is meant to be ruled only by people approved by them or from amongst them. They believe as propagated by the Hindu nationalist organization the Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh (RSS) that Christians, Sikhs, Muslims, Buddhists, Jains, and even pagans were forced to renounce Hinduism and renounce their belief in the supremacy of Hinduism and Rama and Krishna, the two deities whose origin and existence is part of the Hindu folklore.  Since non-Hindu religious minorities were forcibly converted, hence, it is the obligation of upper castes to bring them back to Hinduism and make them pronounce the glory of Ram and Krishna.
With 30 percent of Indians belonging to non-Hindu religious minorities and some 50 percent coming from the castes described lower castes and tribes described scheduled, the task of reconversion is a monumental task. But this is the task that the RSS and its affiliated groups have given a priority.
I am an Indian by birth and I was born in a Muslim family. I have no reason to believe that my forefathers came from Arabia or Central Asia. I have no hesitation in accepting the Hindu heritage of my forefathers. I am not aware if they were forcibly converted from Hinduism to Islam. But what I can say is that I validate their conversion and admire them for believing in Islam and passing on to their generations till i was born. Now it is my obligation to live their legacy and commitment and pass it on to my next generations.
I admire them for their decision to accept Islam because that was the only avenue available in India in those dark ages to live as dignified human beings. As members of non-upper castes, I am sure, many of the peers of my forefathers were living the miserable life like the people designated as lower castes by Hindu religions. They were living outside the pale of human civilization. They had no dignity. Their job was to serve the upper castes in every possible way. Their women were like sexual objects for their men. They were not allowed to protest if their daughter or wives or mothers or sisters were raped. They were not allowed to even visit the areas of the upper caste unless they have to remove their feces and dirt. They were not allowed to drink water from their wells. They were not even allowed to visit the temples to pray to deities. In fact, the tradition of killing a low caste person for reading the holy scripture set by Rama was there to perpetuate the religiously sanctioned in humanity. Manu Smiriti, the book that degrades lower castes, was the law of the day.
In this inhuman and choking condition, Islam came with its ideals of equality, humanity, and prosperity. It told people that human beings are equal and people cannot be termed as low and high based on their birth. People achieve a higher status in the eyes of God because of their good deeds and upright character. It told them that women are not the property of anyone. They have an independent identity and are equally responsible for their action and life. It told them that religious institutions are not to be monopolized by people claiming to be upper castes. It told them in the eyes of God all are his creation and no one is to be deprived of his or her dignity because of his or her birth. It challenged the false notion propagated by the upper caste Hindus that menial jobs are to be performed only by the lower caste. It demolished the idea that birth status has anything to do with the nature of work people choose to do in life. It liberated them from the injustices their forefathers had lived for thousands of years in the name of God and his message.
It was the right decision of my forefathers to abandon a faith that divided human being into low and high based on their birth. I have no hesitation to admit that over the years, many of my forefathers succumbed to the menace of Hindu hierarchy and they created the false divisions of Ashraf and Azlal. They promoted discrimination on the basis of their birth. They went against the decisions and intentions of their forefathers. 
My forefathers did not accept Islam to prove their superiority over others. They accepted Islam because they wanted equality, respect and dignity, and upper mobility in life in every sphere even in religious matters.
So the upper castes have no right to question me or my forefathers. Because we believe that by accepting Islam, we strengthened India as a country that stands for equality, justice, and humanity, something that Hinduism, as promoted by those who shout Jai Sri Ram, cannot offer. The very fact that religious minorities are being forced to say Jai Sri Ram is itself a proof of the intolerance and hatred such groups show to God and humanity.
I am glad that my forefathers did not accept Ram as a glorified one because of his killing of a lower caste as reported in Ramayana. I am glad they renounced Hinduism. I am glad, that they used their conscientious to liberate them from the bondage of upper castes. I hail their decision and I stand by them. I will never say Jai Shri Ram and I will proudly declare that my forefathers did the right thing to challenge the upper caste hegemony on God.
I believe that I am not alone in my assertions. Muslims of India in general support this position. There are millions and millions who reject Hinduism because of its castes and disrespect to human beings who do not belong to the upper castes. 

Sunday, June 9, 2019

The Electoral Strategy BJP used to take over India

by Dr. Aslam Abdullah

The BJP and its allies won the last parliamentary election on the strength of a well organized and disciplined RSS cadre. With millions of its members all over the country and with financial resources unmatched by any organization in the history of India's elections, the BJP and its allies won an almost 2/3rd majority of 543 parliamentary seats. 
Voters did not vote on the performance of the Modi government, rather, they voted on a vision of India that RSS workers fed them day in and day out much before the elections. Millions of them went door to door talking to men, women, and youth using all the resources they could find to sell the vision that RSS has worked tirelessly since 1925 when it was formed. 
Its a remarkable success on the part of an organization banned twice in India and accused of supporting the murderer of Gandhiji, the main architect of India's freedom. It is a story of India's love for an organization that is rooted in hatred of minorities, an organization that supported the British colonialists and spied against the freedom fighters.
Of course, electronic voting machines (EVM) played a significant role and big rallies created the perception of a BJP wave, but they alone did not bring victory to the Hindu nationalist organization. One to one contact at grassroots level did. It was the dedication of RSS workers who worked tirelessly for promoting their vision at the grassroots levels.
None of the opposition parties has that cadre and dedicated workers. None has the resources to match. Each one of their leaders is involved in some scandals at a certain point of his or her life and each has relied on RSS in one way or the other to secure their political status.
As long as RSS cadre is with BJP, India's 63 percent voters would not be able to remove the BJP in electoral campaigns. Because elections are won by those who bring their voters on the polling booth on the election day.
Our invisible researchers in 15 states namely, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal. Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Himachal, Karnataka, Telangana, Punjab, and Delhi found similarities in the campaign propaganda and style. In each state the language was different, the style varied, but the content was more or less the same. Here is what the researchers heard the BJP campaigners tell the voters.
1 Modi is the new divine avatar sent to liberate Hindus from centuries-old slavery to Muslims and Christians.
2. Muslims and Christians were essentially cruel towards Hindus. They killed Hindus indiscriminately, raped their women, converted their temples into their places of worship and persecuted the upper castes.
3. Muslims desecrated Hindu places of worship.
4. They forcibly converted Hindus to Islam.
5. They created their own country where Hindus are being persecuted.
6. Without getting rid of Muslims, Hindus would not have self-dignity.
7. Muslims cannot be trusted. They will always go against the interests of Hindus.
8, Muslims are anti-Hindus as they slaughter the cow.
9. Muslims have a plan to overtake the Hindu population of the country by producing more.
10. Muslims are a burden on India.
11. Only Modi with a tough stand can teach Muslims a lesson.
12. Modi has proven in Gujarat that he can defeat the Muslim menace.
13. Once Modi comes to power again, Muslims will be forced to behave.
14. As Hindus converted to Islam under the pressure of foreign invading Muslim armies, so will Muslim succumb to the power of Hindus and re-enter Hinduism.
15. Muslims of Shia origin are also fed up with Muslim mainstream, hence they are supporting Modi.
16. Muslim women are supportive of Modi because he liberated them from the scourage of triple talaq.
17. If Modi and BJP lost this election, Hindus will be subjugated for a long time.
18. The opposition would appease Muslims and sell the soul of Hinduism to Muslims.
19. The opposition is led by people who are foreign agents and could be hidden Muslims.
20. The opposition would sell off Kashmir to Pakistan, while Modi would help liberate Pakistan occupied Kashmir also.
In defense of their campaign propaganda, they quoted concocted history, fabricated anecdotes, and false myths. They were convinced that a Modi defeat would destroy Hinduism from its core relegating Hindus to a point of no return.
The campaign was primarily an anti-muslim campaign, even though a substantial number of Muslims were supportive of Modi because of his favors to several Muslim sects and religious groups. 
The BJp used not only its volunteers but officials sympathetic to its ideology at the grassroots levels who in their private and official capacities became the party spokespersons. The grassroots workers were given the task to ensure that the voters they have talked to are brought to polling booths on the day of the election. The money was distributed freely and intoxicants were freely available on the eve of elections.
It is this propaganda that was invisible to the media that was busy covering the big rallies and focussing on stories that were irrelevant. 
EVM manipulation is an accusation and given the fact that bureaucracy is owned by BJP, it is difficult to prove it. Unless the manufacturers and programmers of the machine reveal inside stories, it would be almost impossible to prove the accusation. Every computer software can be manipulated and hacked. Money has the power to silence even the worst critics.
The secular forces are weak. They have not yet convinced Indian masses that even Muslims or Christians or atheists can also be patriotic Indian, while RSS has convinced BJP supporters that only a Hindu belonging to RSS or any of its outfits can be a true Indian.
Now Modi has come to power and RSS is in total control of most of India, what is going to happen.
Doubtlessly, the RSS would implement its Hindutva agenda as quickly as possible through government schemes. It would do it quietly without making news of it. It has the infrastructure to do so. Its workers would harass Muslims at various levels. Some would be stripped of their citizenship. Some would be forced to leave the homes they have been living for centuries. Some would lose their jobs and their land and some would be intimidated to convert to Hinduism. Muslims and other minorities would continue to be pushed to the margins of society. 
The opposition at present has no stamina to withstand the RSS onslaught. For the next few years or decades, India would witness the rise of Hindutva fanaticism and only when this fanaticism would start hurting the Hindus who would find the RSS ideology divisive and harmful to India, India might witness some change. Until then keep on counting the numbers of lynched bodies, the raped women, the discriminated people, and the humiliated communities.  An assertive Hindutva wants to get even with Muslims in crimes it accuses Muslims of committing during the rule of Khlijis, Tughlaq, Lodhis or Mughals.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019


Itikaf: Once a lifetime opportunity to remind oneself one's reality

by Dr. Aslam Abdullah


Itikaf is a practice that goes back to all those who spend time in seclusion to reflect and ponder over their purpose in life and who want to achieve a higher stage of spirituality. Through their contemplation and reflection on the purpose of their existence, many have offered new and unique perspectives to their fellow humans, and many have achieved higher spiritual status. It is a practice that prevails in all cultures and religions. It inspires a human being to withdraw from the regular hustle bustle of the world, even from his own family and focuses\ on issues that he or she deem significant for oneself and society. The length of seclusion depends on the social rhythm of life in each culture and religion.
Islam institutionalized i'tikaf in the month of fasting through the practice of Prophet Muhammad. It is a communal obligation, and it means that if the only one person observes it in a locality, it would be regarded as an obligation fulfilled on behalf of all. The fasting was declared obligatory for the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar in the second year of Prophet's migration to Medina or in the fifteenth year of his Prophetic mission. Except for the first year of fasting, the Prophet is reported to have observed i'tikaf as long as he lived. After him, his wives continued performing i'tikaf in the masjid. He spent ten days in the middle of Ramadan in the masjid, but he advised his companions to continue doing i'tikaf in the last ten days. He once observed i'tikaf for 20 days. 
Itikaf is performed by those who are fasting. Both men and women did their i'tikaf during the time of the Prophet. At Prophet's mosque, special arrangements were made for women following this practice of the Prophet.
During the Itikaf a person doing itikaf should spend the night only in the mosque where he/she is doing itikaf, except if the tent is in one of the courtyards of the mosque.  If the masjid does not have toilet facilities than the person doing itikaf can go home to relieve.
 The person who wants to have itikaf should enter the masjid before the sunset with a clear intention. During his stay, his focus should not be his family, business or work. However, he can delegate others to take care of these matters in his absence. If due to some unavoidable situation one has to abandon the i'tikaf for intended days, he or she has to complete it later. Itikaf is an act of ibada (worship) and it must be performed with full sincerity and intensity. Imam Malik said: "A person doing itikaf is not doing itikaf until he avoids what someone doing itikaf should avoid, namely, visiting the sick, praying over the dead, and entering houses, except to relieve himself."
The best practice is to absorb oneself in prayers and recitation of the Quran reflecting on its meaning and relevance in one's life. The prophet in addition to doing this would also use the opportunity to reflect on the condition of Muslims and would discuss strategies with the strategies to improve the quality of spiritual and social life. There are four things that are proven from the practice of the Prophet during itikaf.
1. Consuming less food
2. Sleeping less no of hours
3. Lesser engagement in conversation.
4. Lesser social interaction.
Instead, he would focus on the following four
1. Prayers
2. Quranic recitation of the passages that were revealed until then
3. Deeper reflections on the divine guidance of the existence of life
4. Quietly helping others observing the itikaf.
In fact, itikaf is once a lifetime opportunity to focus on one's life and purpose in relation to the creator and His creation. 

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

The Chronology of the Quran: Fourth Episode

by. Dr. Aslam Abdullah
Twenty Second day
81. An-Nazi'at (Those that Rise) (79)
Makkah
An-Naziat is the 81st Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it appears as 79th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is a Makki Surah, and it comprises 46 Ayah spread in two Ruku.  It focuses on affirming the truth, the resurrection of human beings and the life after death and alludes to the fact that it is the worldly life that determines how everyone would be placed in his or her new place after resurrection and judgment. It refers to the story of Prophet Moses and his struggle against Pharaoh. It warns people against an arrogant attitude.
 82. Al-Infitar (The Cleaving Asunder) (82)
Makkah
Al-Infitar is the 82nd Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it is also the 82nd in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah has 19 Ayah and one Ruku. Its theme is the resurrection. It asks human beings to review his or her understanding of his purpose and role in this life. If they believe that life has no meaning and they are free to do whatever they want, then their life would not prove worthy for them and others but if they believe that it has a purpose and the divine guidance enable a person to achieve that purpose, then the resurrection would bring enrichment in their new phase of life. It reminds people that everything they do in this world is in the purview of Allah, and humans cannot deny them.
83. Al-Inshiqaq (The Splitting Asunder) (84)
Makkah
In order of revelation, Al-Inshiqaq is the 83rd Surah, and in order of its arrangement in the Quran, it is the 84th Surah. It has 25 Ayah and one Ruku. It gives a description of the end time. It reminds human beings that their actions are being recorded and on the day of judgment, justice would be done. If they were right in this life, they would move into a comfortable phase of their new existence, and they were terrible, they would become stagnant and face the punishment. It invites people to reflect on the Quranic message of oneness of God.
84. Ar-Rum (The Byzantines) (30)
Makkah
Ar-Rum is the 84th Surah revealed upon the Quran and it is the 30th in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 60 Ayah and six Ruku. It explains the philosophy of the rise and fall of nations. It tells that the conditions do not always stay the same. Changes take place constantly. Those who are in power lose their power, and those who were powerless may gain influence. It makes a prediction about the victory of Romans who were defeated by the Persians. It also establishes the principle that faith does not isolate its believers from the happenings around them. It tells people to reflect on the process of creation and learn from nature. It talks about establishing justice and practicing charity. It asks people to respect the institution of family and make love and compassion part of the family relations. The spouses help each other overcome their weaknesses instead of competing to prove their superiority over each other. Finally, it reminds people of the day of judgment.
Twenty Third day
85. Al-'Ankabut (The Spider) (29)
Makkah
Al-ankabut is 85th Surah revealed upon the prophet, and in the traditionally arranged Quran, it appears as 29th Quran. It was revealed in Makkah, and it has 69 Ayah and seven Ruku. Life is not always a bed of roses. Human beings go through ups and downs in life. Those who have faith in Allah often face and have faced trials in their times. The followers of Prophet Muhammad should not be afraid of going through such trials. It would strengthen them and prepare them to deal with such trials effectively. Ultimately, they are the ones who will overcome such hardships because non-believers and the deniers of the truth would suffer the consequences of their action.
86. Al-Mutaffifin (Those who give short measures) (83)
Makkah
The 83rd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran is the 86th surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was the last Surah revealed in Makkah, and it has 36 Ayah and one Ruku. It establishes the principle that faith covers all aspects of life. One cannot be a true believer if one’s entire life is not guided by it.  It refers to business practices and warns of dishonesty in trade relations and warns of the consequences. It explains that justice will ultimately be done and if people are not caught in this world for their wrongs, they will face judgment in the life hereafter.
 87. Al-Baqarah (The Cow) (2)
Medina
The 87th Surah revealed upon the Prophet is Al-Baqarah and is the second Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran, and it is the longest Surah in the Quran. It has 286 Ayah divided into 40 Ruku. It is the first one to be revealed in Medina, and it deals with issues about the emerging society concerning law, morality, economy, polity, interfaith relations, and security of citizens. It speaks of three categories of people, genuine believers, conscious rejecters of the faith, the hypocrites. Those who genuinely believe in the divine guidance follow what they have been ordained to follow in every aspect of life. Those who reject the faith consciously will never accept the truth because in their mind they have the conviction that they were right. The hypocrites watch the situation and move in either direction, depending on their interests. It narrates the story of the beginning of humanity and refers to the animosity and arrogance of Satan to the divine guidance, It assures people of the guidance that would be sent through messengers to show humans the right path. It refers to the covenant that the Jews had with God about living their lives according to the divine teachings and how that covenant was broken.  It describes the process of the creation of the House to worship one God. It also focuses on family matters, transparency in one’s dealings with others. It asks people to be truthful to their vows, and it draws people’s attention to the past when the divine message was changed and edited to suit the interests of those who were the power elites. It lays emphasis on establishing a society free from usury, exploitation, and oppression.  
88. Al-Anfal (Spoils of War) (8)
Medina
Al-Anfal is the 88th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It appears as the eighth Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Medina has 75 Ayah divided in 10 Ruku. it was revealed in Medina in the second year of migration and after the battle of Badr.   It advises believers to maintain good interpersonal relations and explains the rules of engagements between Muslims and others. It refers to the wealth and resources that the enemies of Muslim left behind after the battles. It provides a rationale of just war, and it demands steadfastness from those who are among believers. It also advises on how to deal with prisoners of war. It reminds people that obedience of God and the Prophet are part of the faith, and believers must always be ready to sacrifice everything for the sake of truth. Justice is the essence of faith, and Muslims must be the seekers of justice not only for themselves but for others. Defending the neglected and the poor is the responsibility of Muslims
Twenty-Fourth Day
89. Surah 'Al 'Imran (The House of Imran) (3)
Medina
Al-Imran, in the traditionally arranged Quran, is the third Surah but it is the 89th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina. It is one of those Surahs that were revealed in phases. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 200 Ayah and 20 Ruku. It refers to the struggles of Prophets Moses and Aaron and narrates the story of Mary and Prophet Jesus. The Surah offers a critique of Christian religious thoughts concerning monotheism and the institution of prophethood. It delves in details on some of the pillars of Islam, such as Monotheism, Salat, Zakat, and Hajj,. It warns against usury. It also defines Jihad in its fullest meaning. It asks the community of believers to be on guard always and never show negligence in living the divine guidance. It invites people of the book to agree on a minimum agenda to serve God. It refutes the Christian idea of the divinity of Jesus. It also exhorts the believers to take care of the poor, and the neglected in the world and reminds Muslims that they are not a sect but the bearer of a universal message sent to benefit every human being.
90. Al-Ahzab (The Confederates) (33)
Medina
Al-Ahzab is the 90th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina and is the 33rd in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 73 Ayah spread out in nine sections. It refers to some of the social issues that the changing society of Medina was facing after the introduction of Islam. It raises the issue of hijab of women, marriage traditions, children’s adoption, and the place of sincerity in establishing a just society. It asks humanity to learn from the character of the Prophet, who is a role model for all. It establishes the principle of equality of men and women in the eyes of Allah and reassures the people that in the divine scheme, gender is not used to discriminate any human. Men and women are both created by Allah, and they are equally blessed by him
91. Al-Mumtahinah (The Examined One) (60)
Medina
Al-Mumtahinah is the 60th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 91st Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina and has 13 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It was revealed after the treaty of peace signed between Muslims and the non-believers of Makkah at the site of Hudaybiyah. It reminds Muslims that the faith is given to them by Prophet Muhammad is from the creator of the universe, and it should not be contaminated or mixed with the messages that claim to be divine, yet have elements that are included to secure the interest of power elites. In matters of faith, guidance comes only from God. However, it advises believers to maintain healthy and normal relations with those who do not subscribe to their ideas.
 92. Anl-Nisa' (Women) (4)
Medina
An-Nisa is the 92nd Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it occurs as the fourth Surah in the Quran. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 176 Ayah spread in 24 Ruku.  It informs people of the process that enabled Muslims to develop an Islamic society in Medina, explains the theology in similar terms to Jews, Christians, and polytheists and inspires the believers to share their faith with others.  It establishes rules for making family ties stronger and defines roles for men and women in society and husband and wife in a family. It defines the rules of inheritance. It challenges the practice of the past of treating women like property and asserts they are human and have equal rights, including rights in the ownership of property. It asks believers to struggle to establish justice for all. It exhorts them to respect human life. It warns against the designs of hypocrites and those who want to disturb social peace. It also defines rules for making ablution before prayers, shortening prayers during travels. It gives glad tidings to believers and assures them that their reward is with the Lord of the universe.
Twenty-Fifth Day
93. Al-Zilzal (The earthquake) (99)  
Medina
In the traditionally arranged Quran Al-Zilzal is the 99th Surah and in the chronology of revelation, it is the 93rd. It was revealed has 8 ayahs in one Ruku. It focuses on the day of judgment and assures human beings that ultimate justice would be carried out then. Every action would be out in the open, and those who did well would be rewarded, and those who were evil would be punished.  
94. Al-Hadid (Iron) (57)  
Medina
Al-Hadid is the 94th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. In the traditionally arranged Quran, it appears as the 57th Surah. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 29 Ayah divided into four Ruku.  Its central theme is the security of safety of the citizens of the state of Medina that was under constant attack of non-believers. It reminds people of the short and delusional life of this world and asks people to prepare them for the life hereafter that would be permanent and everlasting. It describes justice as the cornerstone of all the Prophetic mission and encourages the believers to do well in this life to earn a better life in the hereafter.
 95. Muhammad (47)
Medina
Surah Muhammad is the 47th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran, and it was the 95th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina and has 38 Ayah in four Ruku. It asks believers to be firm in their faith and struggle to establish divine guidance in their personal, family, and social life. It assures the believers that they would be the ultimate winner as falsehood would disappear because truth cannot be defeated.
96. Ar-Ra'd (Thunder) (12)
Medina
Ar-Rad is the 13 Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 96th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. Even though there are two opinions on its place of origin, the dominant view suggests that it was revealed in Medina except for a few that were given to the Prophet in Makkah. It has 43 Ayah in six Ruku. The universe and everything that exists point to the existence of God. Nature offers signs of God and his attributes. The faithful are the ones who understand the signs as proof the presence of God, and they earn their passage into the eternal Garden of Eden and those who refuse to learn from the divine signs hurt them in the long run.  But history offers enough evidence to suggest that truth cannot be suppressed.
 Twenty-Sixth Day
97. Ar-Rahman (The Most Gracious) (55)
Medina
Ar-Rehman was the 97th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It is the 55th Surah of the Quran. It is believed by a good number of scholars to be the Madani Surah, even though a few suggest that it was revealed in Makkah. It has 78 Ayah in three Ruku. It gives a detailed description of divine blessings and bounties bestowed upon human beings and tells the people that they cannot deny any of those as they are everywhere and beneficial. It reminds human beings of their temporary existence and assures them of a life of comfort in the hereafter if they did well in this worldly life.
98.  al-Insan or Ad- Dahr (Human being or Time) (76)
Medina
Al-Insan is the 76th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 98th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina and has 31 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It reminds human beings of his or her origin, explaining that from a non-entity, they were given an identity endowed with the faculties of analysis and observation. It asks them to make sure of these faculties to reach to the truth and live by it. It exhorts them to help those who are downtrodden, the poor, and the neglected ones to ensure justice and prosperity.
 99. At-Talaq (Divorce) (65)
Medina
At-Talaq is the 99th Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it is the 65th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Medina and has 12 Ayah and 2 Ruku. This sura focuses on rules of divorce in case husband and wife decide to separate after going through the process of reconciliation. It asks spouses to be mindful of each other’s rights. It specifically asks husbands to ensure that the divorce does not lead to the denial of the wife’s rights ensured by the Quran. These laws would make sense only if one believes in Allah and accepts the message as delivered by Prophet Muhammad.
100. Surah al-Bayyinah  (The Evidence of the Truth) (98)
Medina
At-Talaq is the 100th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It is arranged as Surah 98 in the traditionally compiled Quran. It was revealed in Medina and has 8 Ayah in 1 Ruku.  It revolves around the theme of the purity and clarity of the divine message given to humanity through Prophet Muhammad. The purpose of the Quran is to help human beings walk the straight and right path and avoid all those actions that deviate from that path. It reasserts the genuineness of the divine guidance and assures that it is God who is the giver of guidance.
Twenty Seventh Day
101. Al-Hashr (The Gathering) (59)
Medina
Al-Hashr is the 101st Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It is the 59th in the traditionally arranged Quran. Al-Hashr was revealed in Medina, and it has 24 Ayah in three Ruku. It refers to the manipulations hypocrites, and some non-Muslim tribes were involved in to reduce Muslims to a non-entity in Medina. They were afraid of the growing influence of Muslims and believed that their relevance in the city would be minimized. They were also fearful of the clarity of the divine guidance and feared that their youngsters might feel attracted to it. It urges the believers to remain steadfast as God would not abandon them.
102. An-Nur (The Light) (24)
Medina
An-Nur is the 24th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is 102nd Surah in the order of revelation. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 64 Ayah in nine Ruku. It specifies rules of gender relations and communications. It also prescribes the dress code for men and women. It describes slander and rumor mongering acts that destroy the sanctity of human society. It defines rules of privacy for both men and women. It even explains the manners of entering one’s own residence. It prescribes punishment for adultery. It demands total loyalty of the believers to the Prophet and the message he was sharing with the society.
103. Al-Hajj (Pilgrimage) (22)
Medina
Al-Hajj is the 103rd Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it appears as 22nd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It has 76 Ayas. It refers to Resurrection, and its logical reasoning gives warnings to those who deny the Hereafter. It speaks about the struggles against idolaters and polytheists. It invites people to verify the instructive fate of those who passed away, and the painful Divine punishments which were sent down upon them. It talks about the Hajj pilgrimage and its historical background. It is also about the struggles which were performed against the hostile invaders. It also advised upon different fields of life, and encourages people to prayer, offer almsgiving, have trust, and have faith in Allah.
 104. Al-Munafiqun (Hypocrites) (63)
Medina
Al-Munafiqoon is the 63 Surah of the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 104th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 11 Ayah and two Ruku. It explains the dangers of hypocrisy and warns against it. It says that hypocrites create conditions for the destabilization of a moral society because based on their interests, personal or political, they hurt the sincere and the upright people. It reminds believers to understand the true intentions o hypocrites and do not accept their leadership.
 Twenty Eight Days
105. Al-Mujadalah (The Pleading) (58)
Medina
Al-Mujadalah is he 58th Surah of the traditionally arranged Quran, and it is the 105th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 22 Ayah divided into three Ruku., It is a critique on social customs that flout logic and divine guidance. It specifically refers to an old tribal tradition where someone would refer to his wife as his mother and then would get rid of her without divorcing her. It was a custom to torture one’s wife and treating her like a commodity at the discretion of her husband.  It warns against such practice and in a way recommended that every social custom should look objectively in its relevance with the divine guidance. It also refers to the ill effect hypocrites bring upon society.
106. Al-Hujurat (Private Chambers) (49)
Medina
Al-Hujurat is the 106th Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it occurs as the 49th surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 18 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It specifies the morals and manners necessary to build a peaceful and cohesive society. It also described the need to show respect to the leadership and listen to its guidance in family and social life. It reminds people that without showing respect to the prophet, their commitment to God would remain incomplete.
107. At-Tahrim (Prohibition) (66)
Medina
At-Tahrim is the 66th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 107th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 12 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It emphasizes the importance of accepting Allah as the supreme lawgiver. He alone is the one who can declare things permitted and not permitted or Halal and Haram. It also advises that the divine rules are also applicable in every aspect of life, including conjugal relations. It tells that faith and God-consciousness must reflect their impact on family and public relations.
108. At-Taghabun (Loss and Gain) (64)
Medina
At-Taghabun is the 64th in the traditionally arranged Quran, and it is the 108th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 18 Ayah and 2 Ruku. Its central theme is that everything created by Allah has a purpose. The divine guidance enables humans to understand their purpose in life and to make use of other creations for promoting righteousness. It alludes to the consequences of evil deeds and deviating from the spiritual path. It exhorts the believers to keep their intentions pure to bring effectiveness in their actions.
Twenty-Ninth Day
 109. As-Saff (The Ranks) (61)
As-Saff is the 109th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina, and it is arranged as 61st Surah in the Quran. It has 14 Ayah in two Ruku. It places emphasis on the strength of faith in countering the opposition and exhorts believers to remain steadfast on the path of truth. It draws people’s attention to the followers of Moses and Jesus, who broke their covenant with God and suffered the consequences. It asks believers to remain hopeful of the support of Allah to their cause.
110. Al-Jumu'ah (The Congregation) (62)
Medina
Al-Jumah is the 62nd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 110th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 11 Ayah and two Ruku. It establishes the principle that knowledge without actions does not produce desired results. It refers to previous religious communities who were knowledgeable but devoid of effects. It emphasizes the importance of Friday congregational prayers and suggests that their sustenance is in the hands of Allah, and the prayers would enable them to create an environment where they can earn subsistence from God in abundance.
 111.  Al-Fath (Victory) (48)
Medina
Al-Fath is the 111th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. In the traditionally arranged Quran, it occurs as 62nd Surah. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 29 Ayah and four Ruku. It heralds the coming of a new world created under the leadership of Prophet based on divine guidance. It refers to the peace treaty of Hudaybiyah and describes it as the foundation for this victory. It exposes hypocrites and their false allegations. It recognizes the sacrifices given by the believers in the establishment of such a community and society based on the idea of submission to Allah, and it informs the future generations of the struggle they must engage in to ensure the continuity of the success that occurred during the time of the Prophet and his companions.
112. Al-Ma'idah (The Repast) (5)
Medina
Al-Maidah is the 5th Surah according to the arrangement of the Qur'an and 112th according to the order of revelation.  It was revealed in Medina, and it has 120 Ayah and 16 Ruku. It has the verse no 5:3 that is said to be the last verse revealed upon the Prophet. It revolves around the theme that Allah’s faith is complete, and it is sent to give guidance to human beings. It refers to the movements led by Moses and Jesus to bring out the truth to their people and urges their Jews and Christians to be attentive to the message delivered by Prophet Muhammad as it testifies to what was said in Torah and Injeel. It reminds believers that justice is the essence of divine guidance, and it must be preserved even if it goes against oneself. It also invites people to create a human brotherhood and sisterhood and build a society based on love and compassion. It explains that the world created by the divine is for the benefit of human beings, and they try to explore it based on their rational faculties and not on superstitions, false assumptions, and blind following. It also warns people of the ill effects of gambling, consumption of intoxicant, and consuming food offered to deities and idols. Finally, it refutes the idea that Jesus was God or the son of God. He was a mighty messenger, and he delivered the divine message to the people known as Israelites to bring them back to the right path.

Thirtieth Day
113. At-Tawbah (Repentance) (9)
Medina
At-Tawbah is the ninth Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It is the 113th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Medina and has 129 Ayah and 16 Ruku. It is the only Surah in the Quran that starts without Bismillah hir Rahman ar Rahim, a sentence that precedes all the other 113 Surah. It talks about the responses that become necessary when treaties are broken, and established norms are flouted by those who oppose the divine guidance. It asks believers to respond to such elements with courage and determination. It asks them to confront hostility and hypocrisy with strong faith and face. It also reminds people to guard the collective interests of people always.
114. An-Nasr (Succor) (110)
Medina

An-Nasr is the 114th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It is the 110th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Medina, and it has 3 Ayah in one Ruku. It asks people to glorify the Lord, and it tells people to be aware of the new responsibilities they would be facing after the entrance of many new people to the ranks of believers. It asks them to be always in a state of humility, seeking protection in the divine guidance to remain committed to the idea of monotheism. It reasserts the divine attribute of accepting all those who understand that human beings may commit wrong, and it is God who forgives and provide protections.  Thus the message that began with a call to create a knowledge-based society and community concludes with showing gratitude to God and expressing humility after the success and establishment of the truth within the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad.

Sunday, May 19, 2019


The Chronology of the Quran: Third Episode
By Dr. Aslam Abdullah

Fifteenth day
53. Yusuf (Joseph) (12)
Makkah
Yusuf is the 53rd Surah revealed upon the Prophet. In the traditionally arranged Quran, it is the 12th Surah. It was revealed in Makkah and has 111 Ayah in 12 Ruku. It testifies the integrity of the character of all the messengers and reminds people that they were chosen by the creator on the basis of the strength of their character deeply rooted in the trust in Allah. It narrates the story of Prophet Joseph who suffered betrayal after betrayals from his family, captors, adopted family, prisoners with whom he shares a prison cell, yet he remained committed to the divine guidance to ultimately triumph. It says that the strength of character is the foundation of beating all odds.

54. Al-Hijr (15)
Makkah
Al-Hijr is the 54th Surah according to the order of revelation and it is the 15th in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 99 Ayah divided into six Ruku. It repeats the foundational message of the Quran on the purity and sincerity of the message of the Quran. It refers to the initial response of the people to the divine guidance that has often been a rejection of the divine call of the oneness of humanity. It invites people to seek forgiveness from God for their negligence. It draws people’s attention to the fate of the communities of Prophet Lot and Shuaib who suffered for their deviations and inability to seek forgiveness from Allah.

55. Al-An'am (The Cattle) (6)
Makkah
Al-An’am is the 6th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran and it is the 55th that was revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah and has 165 Ayah in 20 Ruku. It explains the universal features of Islam and lays emphasis on monotheism. Never in the history of humanity had Allah given a message justifying polytheism. People were the ones who invented polytheism for lack of better judgment and clarity of ideas. Monotheism is based on truth and it would ultimately prevail. One of the leading causes for people to reject faith in the oneness of Allah is their arrogance that causes ungratefulness and leads to rejecting Allah and replacing him with self idols.

56 As Saffat (Those ranked in Ranks) (37)
Makkah
As-Saffat is the 56th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and is the 37th in the chronologically arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah has 182 Ayah in 11 Ruku. It is the first Surah of the Quran that starts with an oath. Its focus is on the origin of human beings, their death and resurrection and it dwells upon the consequences of one’s actions in this life and hereafter. It gives admonitions to people and it warns them of dire consequences if they do not adhere to divine guidance.

Sixteenth Day
57. Luqman (31)
The 57th Surah Luqman revealed upon the Prophet is the 31st Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah has 34 Ayah in four Ruku. It establishes the principle of learning from those who are wise and whose message is rooted in monotheism. It asks people to learn from the example of Luqman, a wise man who asked his son to remain steadfast on the path of monotheism. It repeats the message given in many previous Surah that the belief in one God is the key to human success. It warns people of protecting them from the deceptive nature of things that often present them as useful to people.
58. Saba' (Sheba) (34)
Makkah
Saba is the 34th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 58th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah has 54 Ayah in six Ruku. It establishes the principle of assuming responsibility of one’s actions. It reminds people that those who pretend to lead them in this world in wrong directions would be the first ones to acknowledge their mistakes. It narrates the story of Kings David and Solomon and Queen Sheba. It elaborates the concepts of monotheism, the prophethood and the day of judgment and it reminds the people that a materialistic lifestyle will not benefit human beings.

59. Az-Zumar (The Throngs) (39)
Makkah
This is the 59th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and it numbers 59th in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 75 Ayah and eight Ruku. It reminds people to believe in the guidance of Allah that will free them from despair and hopelessness. It reasserts the uniqueness of monotheism and advises the people to understand the dangerous consequences of polytheism. It assures them that the creator of the universe is Allah and if the believers in him have difficulty in practicing their religion, they can migrate to another land where they can live without compromising their faith. It tells the rejecters of faith that they cannot persuade believers to renounce their faith. It reassures the humanity that Allah’s mercy is for all.

60. Al-Ghafir (Forgiving) (40)
Makkah
Al-Ghafir is the 40th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran and in the chronological order of revelation, it numbers 60th. It has 85 Ayah in nine Ruku. It is one of the seven Surah that begins the word Ha-Mim. The others are HaMim al-Sajdah, al-Shura, al-Zukhruf, al-Dukhan, al-Jathiyah, and al-Ahqaf.  Its main theme is that false pride prevents humans from accepting the truth. It invites believers to share the divine message with the rest of humanity to remind them of the purity of the idea of monotheism, and explain the dangers of polytheism. It asks people to learn from the history especially the history of the people who lived under the yoke of Pharaoh. It tells them that the repentance is open for all but when the judgment is passed it would not be accepted.

Seventeenth day
61. Fussilat (Closely Spelled Out) (41)
Fussilat is the 61st Surah revealed upon the Prophet and comes as Surah 41st Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 54 Ayah spread out in six Ruku. It reminds people that an idea is best understood by people when it is presented in deeds and actions. In other words, divine guidance would become relevant to people if it is substantiated with deeds. It talks about the benefit of the divine teaching for people and asks them to reflect on the Quran being revealed upon the Prophet. It tells the rejecters of the faith that they cannot reduce the relevance and significance of the divine guidance by rejecting it. It also asks people to be polite and humble in their discourse and respond to evil with a good while inviting people for reflecting on the truth.

62. Al-Shura (Consultation) (42)
Makkah
The 42nd Surah Ash-Shura in the traditionally arranged Quran is the 62nd Surah that was revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah has 53 Ayah and five Ruku. It focuses on the idea of the continuity of divine guidance throughout human history. There was never a period and community in human history that did not get the chance to hear the divine guidance through the messengers selected by Allah. These messengers reminded the people of the life after this worldly life where each would be judged by God on the basis of his or her performance. It also asks people that avoiding major sins is the best way to prepare one for the next life. It also advises people to consult each other in their affairs. In another world, no single individual can claim a monopoly on wisdom.

63.Az-Zukhruf (Gold) (43)
Makkah
Az Zukhruf is the 63rd Surah revealed upon the Prophet and it is the 43rd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It has 89 Ayah and nine Ruku. It asks people to take the divine revelation seriously as it is meant to help them improve their life in this and the next world. It reminds people that a materialistic lifestyle would not help them in life after death as they would leave everything behind.. I ask people to avoid polytheism and blind following and informs people that if they do not remain connected with the divine message they might be influenced by Satanic ideas. It gives glad tidings to believers who would receive rewards from the Lord for their steadfastness and belief in him.

64. Ad-Dukhan (Smoke) (44)
Makkah
Ad-Dukhan is the 44th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran and is the 64th revealed upon the Prophet. It is one of the seven Surahs that have Ha Meem in their beginning. It was revealed in Makkah and has 59 Ayah and 3 Ruku. The Surah reminds people that their actions would have consequences and wrongdoings on their part would earn punishment. It introduces the Quran as a book that discerns right from wrong and warns people of the impact of their wrongdoings in their own life. It reassures believers of generous rewards awaiting in the life hereafter.  

Eighteenth day
65. Al-Jathiyah (Kneeling Down) (45)
Makkah
Al-Jathiyah is the 65th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and it occurs as number 45th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 37 Ayah and four Ruku. It points to a historical reality that human beings have often acted in an arrogant manner, thus committing sins against God and harm against people. However, Allah is watchful of every action of every human being and would hold them accountable on the day of judgment. It warns people not to act as their own God because they would expose them to harm It tells people that none can be spared from the divine judgment.

66. Al-Ahqaf (The Sand-Dunes) (46)
Makkah
Al-Ahqaf is the 46th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran and it is the 66th that was revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah and has 35 Ayah spread in four sections. It is the last in the list of seven Surah that begins with Ha Meem. With examples from the people of Aad and Thamud, who had rejected the divine guidance in the past, the Surah draws people’s attention to their own fate if they behave the same way. It rejects the notion that anyone other than Allah is capable of inventing things. It alludes to the fact that people can discover the laws of Allah to make things, but they cannot invent those rules and laws. It warns people of the consequences of their rejection.

67. Adh-Dhariyat (The Dust-Scattering Winds) (51)
Makkah
Adh-Dhariyat is the 67th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and it numbers 51 in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 60 Ayah and 3 Ruku. It gives reference to the people and times of Prophets Ibrahim, Lot, Moses, Saleh, and Shuaib as well as Noah and asks the contemporaries of Prophet Muhammad and those who would come after them to learn from the past to make their position clear on divine guidance. It acknowledges the efforts that Prophet Muhammad made in establishing a community to serve Allah and inform the believers that falsehood would not survive because the righteous people are now in command.

68. Surah al-Ghashiyah (The Overshadowing Event) (88)
Makkah
Al-Ghashiyah is the 88th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran and it was the 68th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah and has 26 Ayah and one Ruku. It elaborates on the idea of the end of time and tells that human beings will either be sad once they realize that they did not avail the time given in the world to do good or be happy as they realize that the good they did in the world is being acknowledged and accepted by their Creator. It also asks people to learn from the signs of Allah presented in the physical universe and communicate the message to the people. It reminds them that religion cannot be imposed upon people because it is built on the inner voice of the people with self-decision.

Nineteenth day
69. Al-Kahf (The Cave) (18
Makkah
Al-Kahf is 69th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and numbers 18 in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and it has 110 Ayah and 12 Ruku. This Surah is full historical references of people of Cave, Gog and Magog, the pious king Dhul Qarnain and Prophet Moses and his teacher. Through narrating their stories, the Surah invites people to draw certain conclusions. Some of them are listed here.
Allah’s message always finds a place in good hearts.
The life we are given in this world would be taken away one day, and we all would be raised once again.
Those who are grateful to Allah would be recognized and rewarded.
A mundane life would not help people on the last day of judgment, that the knowledge is a process of discovery and even with all discover the actual knowledge stays with the creator and finally what often appears is not what is real.

70. An-Nahl (The Bee) (16)
Makkah
An-Nahl is the 16th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was the 70th Surah revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah and has 128 Ayah and 16 Ruku. This and six other Surah, i.e., Yunus, Yusuf, Al Ra’d, Ibrahim and Hijr) were revealed one after another just before the migration to Medina.  It draws people’s attention to the physical world and everything that has been created in the cosmos and asks people to use their rational faculties to reach to the conclusion that it is one God who is the creator of all, hence human beings should not credit them for owning and controlling this world. They should remember their limitations and they should be grateful to the bounties and blessings of Allah. It also reasserts the ultimate reality that every human soul would be answerable to Allah for every action it led. It emphasizes on the universal character of the divine guidance. It rejects the notion that people have the authority to declare things forbidden or permitted because it is God who exclusively has that authority. It acknowledges the contribution of Prophet Ibrahim in laying the foundation for monotheism in an organized and structured manner.

71. Nooh (Noah) (71)
Makkah
Nooh is one of those few Surah whose order of the revelation and the arrangement in the traditional Quran is the same. It was revealed in Makkah and is the 71st Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it is 71st in its current arrangement. It has 28 Ayah and 2 Ruku. It reminds people of the true story of Prophet Noah and the great flood. It explains the struggles he went through in delivering the message and facing stiff opposition and rejection even from amongst his own family members. It narrates the ridicule and humiliation people hurled upon him and gives the lesson that the truth never fails.

72. Ibrahim (Abraham) (14)
Makkah
Ibrahim is the 72nd Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it numbers 14th in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah has 52 Ayah and 7 Ruku and is regarded as one of the last surahs revealed upon the Prophet. It gives details of the prayers, Prophet Ibrahim made in establishing the House of God in Makkah. It reminds people of the sacrifices and leadership of mother Hajira and son Ismail in living the mission of prophet Ibrahim. It acknowledges a historical fact that at the initial stage of their mission, all the messengers of God have faced tough times as people laugh at their claim and reject their ideas that challenge the status quo. Many were killed and many were ostracized, but none changed and compromised on the divine guidance. It pays tribute to the sacrifices of all who stood for truth. It assures people that the Satanic forces would ultimately be defeated by a determined, morally strong people.

Twentieth  day
73. Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets) (21)
Makkah
Al-Anbiya is one of those Surah not named after any word in its text. It is the 73rd Surah revealed upon the Prophet and numbers 21st in the traditionally arranged Quran. It has Makkan origin and has 112 Ayah in seven Ruku.  It revolves around the theme of the uniqueness of Allah. Humans cannot be God or God-like and God will never be human or human life. The argument of those who say that a human cannot deliver divine guidance is refuted strongly. Even if God comes down on earth in person, the people will reject him. It also refutes the idea that life is purposeless and human beings can use it for their entertainment and playful objectives. It explains the purpose of life and asserts that not only righteous would inherit the earth but they would also replace idol worshiping as was done by Prophet Ibrahim.

74. Al-Mu'minun (The Believers) (73)
Makkah
Al-Muminun is the 74th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and it numbers 23rd in the traditionally arranged Quran? It was revealed in Makkah and has 118 Ayah and six Ruku. It focuses on sharing the divine guidance with the people and accepting the authenticity of Prophet Muhammad. It defines some of the characteristics of believers and places a high value on morality. It reminds people that the message being shared by Prophet Muhammad is the same as was shared by previous messengers. It describes Prophets as one body or one team dedicated to the same mission and purpose. It negates the idea that wealth can purchase righteousness and reminds people that Allah is the creator of everything that exists in the universe.

75. As-Sajdah (Prostration) (32)
Makkah
As-Sajdah is the 32nd Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran and it is the 75th that was revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah and has 30 Ayah and 3 Ruku.  It invites people to use their rationality to reach to the conclusion that there is one Creator of this universe who wants every creation to earn his blessings by accepting the guidance that he regularly sent down through his chosen messengers and he would hold everyone accountable in relation to that message.  It hopes that rational thinking would lead people out of the darkness of their ideas. It refers to the story of Prophet Moses and asks people to learn from the happenings in the past to improve their chances of success. It also makes a clear distinction between a believer and a non-believer.

76. At-Tur (Mount Sinai) (52)
Makkah
At-Tur is 76th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and it is the 52nd in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 49 Ayah and two Ruku. it is refuting the claims of non-believers about Prophet Muhammad and rejecting their accusations against him. It is also refuting the argument of non-believers that Prophet Muhammad was under the spell of some magician or was promoting a new style of poetry. It also gives comfort to the Prophet and through him, all the believers that their efforts would not go waste and Allah would ensure that the truth prevails and falsehood disappears.

Twenty-First day
 77. Al-Mulk (Dominion) (67)
Makkah
Al-Mulk, which is 67th Surah in the traditionally arranged Quran is the 77th revealed upon the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah and has 30 Ayah and two Ruku. It describes the cycle of life and death as part of the divine scheme that enables people to learn their own strength through doing good things. It also draws people’s attention to the creation in the universe and asks them to ponder over the balance that exists in everything and it reminds them that everything belongs to God and he alone is the judge and master and everyone would be held accountable for one’s actions.
78. Al-Haqqah (The Laying-Bare of the Truth) (69)
Makkah
Al-Haqqa is the 78th Surah revealed upon the Prophet and it occurs as 69th Surah in the Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 52 Ayah and two Ruku. Referring to historical events that took place during the time of Prophet Noah, Prophet Moses, Prophet Shuaib, and Prophet Saleh, the surah reminds the people that those who had rejected the divine guidance did not succeed and those who reject it in the present would also not succeed in the present. It also explains that the purpose of the message being given by the prophet is to ensure that human beings are liberated from the yoke of slavery imposed upon them by human beings not different from them. It asks people to take their life in their own control by rejecting false idols who are of no use to anyone.

79.  Al-Ma'arij (The Ways of Ascent) (70)
Makkah
Al-Maarij is the 70th one in the traditionally arranged Quran and it was the 79th revealed about the Prophet. It was revealed in Makkah and it has 44 Ayah and two Ruku.  It revolves around the idea of resurrection and confirms that it is an event that would certainly take place and those who denied it would suffer the consequences of their denial. It reminds people that a good character has no substitute and those who follow the divine guidance in ensuring that they live a pure and humble life with a firm belief in God would be immensely rewarded by the Lord.
80. An-Naba' (The Tiding) (78)
Makkah
An-Naba is the 80th Surah revealed upon the Prophet, and it numbers 78th in the traditionally arranged Quran. It was revealed in Makkah and has 40 Ayah in two Ruku. It refers to the debate among people on the issue of the end of time and informs the people that regardless when it would come, either soon or late, people should prepare them for it. It reassures people that all of them would be brought at one place to be held accountable for their actions. It imagines the condition of those who rejected the faith in this word by alluding to their statements on the day of judgment that they wished they were mere dust.